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Thunder Bay • Orillia

Summary of Changes Made in This Calendar

Summary of New Changes for 2020-2021 Academic Calendar

The following summary outlines changes from previous 2019-2020 academic programs, courses, regulations and admission requirements, approved by the Senate of Lakehead University, are meant to become effective for the 2020-2021 academic year and appear in this web calendar. Additional changes and updates that do not require the approval of the Senate of the University and are not mentioned below, are posted directly into the web calendar as soon as possible after they become effective.

Changes to Admission Requirements

The following admission requirements have been changed from the 2019-2020 Academic Calendar:  

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences

Admission Requirements to Health Sciences Masters Programs
Admission Requirements for Psychology Graduate Programs
Honours Bachelor of Social Work Admission Requirements

Faculty of Medicine

Requirements for Admission to Northern Ontario School of Medicine Doctor of Medicine (MD) Program

University Admission Requirements

Equivalent Certificates

Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities

Admission Requirements for Master of Arts in English

New Admission Requirements

The following are newly approved admission requirements for the 2020-2021 Academic Calendar:

Faculty of Business Administration

Admission Requirements for the HBCOMM 3-year College Transfer Program – Orillia Campus
Admission Requirements for Bachelor of Administration College Transfer Program for Graduates of a 2 Year College Diploma

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences

Admission Requirements for the Honours Bachelor of Kinesiology - Transfer - Collège Boréal Fitness and Health Promotion Diploma
Admission Requirements for the Honours Bachelor of Kinesiology - Transfer - Collège Boréal Massage Therapy Diploma
Admission Requirements for the Honours Bachelor of Kinesiology - Transfer - Collège Boréal Occupational Therapy Assistant and Physiotherapy Assistant Diploma
Admission Requirements for the Honours Bachelor of Kinesiology - Transfer – Cambrian College Physical Fitness Management Diploma
Admission Requirements for the Honours Bachelor of Kinesiology - Transfer – Sault College Fitness and Health Promotion Diploma
Admission Requirements for the Honours Bachelor of Kinesiology - Transfer – Sault College Occupational Therapist and Physiotherapist Assistant Diploma
Admission Requirements for the PhD in Health Sciences

Faculty of Medicine

Requirements for Admission to the Northern Ontario School of Medicine Master of Medical Studies (MMS) Program

Faculty of Science and Environmental Studies

Admission Requirements for the Master of Science Degree in Archaeological Science
Admission Requirements for the Master of Environmental Studies Degree
Admission Requirements for HBSc Computer Science - Transfer Program with Confederation College (Thunder Bay)

Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities

Admission Requirements for the HBA English Transfer Program from Confederation College Film Production Diploma

Admission Requirements Removed

The following admission requirements have been removed from the Academic Calendar (the last calendar these admission requirements appear is 2019-2020):

Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities

Admission Requirements for the Master of Environmental Studies Degree in Nature-Based Recreation and Tourism

Changes to Regulations

The following regulations have been changed from the 2019-2020 Academic Calendar:

Faculty of Business

Academic Regulations for Graduate Programs in Business

Faculty of Education

Department of Undergraduate Studies in Education
Educational Studies Doctoral (PhD) Graduate Program Regulations

Faculty of Engineering

Bachelor of Engineering Co-Operative Education/Internship Option Regulations
Engineering Doctoral (PhD) Graduate Program Regulations

Faculty of Graduate Studies

Master's Regulations
Doctoral Regulations

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences

Health Sciences Graduate Program Regulations
School of Kinesiology Regulations
School of Nursing Regulations
Department of Psychology Regulations
Psychology Graduate Programs Regulations
Public Health Graduate Programs Regulations
School of Social Work Regulations

Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities

School of Outdoor Recreation, Parks and Tourism Regulations

New Regulations

The following are newly approved regulations for the 2020-2021 Academic Calendar:

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences

PhD in Health Sciences Regulations

Faculty of Science and Environmental Studies

Master of Science Degree in Archaeological Science Regulations
Master of Environmental Studies Regulations

Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities

MA History Program Regulations

Regulations Removed

The following regulations have been removed from the Academic Calendar (the last calendar these regulations appear is 2019-2020):

Faculty of Education

Concurrent Content Regulations
Department of Undergraduate Studies in Education Regulations

Changes to Courses

The following courses have been changed from the 2019-2020 Academic Calendar:

Faculty of Business

Business (Thunder Bay) 2014

Faculty of Education

Education 1351, 1352, 1353, 1354, 1571, 1572, 1573, 1574, 1599, 2330, 2430, 3010, 3330, 3531, 4203

Faculty of Engineering

Civil Engineering 0652

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences

Gerontology 1110

Health Sciences 5610, 5615, 5616, 5630, 5635, 5636

Kinesiology 4193, 4220, 4230

Nursing 1511, 5610, 5615, 5616, 5630, 5635, 5636, 5840

Psychology 2011, 2211, 2511, 2917, 3111, 3210, 3211, 3331, 3350, 3511, 3715, 4032, 4033, 4111, 4151, 4212, 4215, 4331, 4511, 4531, 4611, 4711, 4901

Social Work 4300, 4401, 4411, 4407

Faculty of Law

Law 1000, 1020, 1030, 1040, 1060, 1510, 1530, 2000, 2020, 2030, 2035, 2530, 2593, 2601, 3510, 3800

Faculty of Medicine

Medicine 5045, 5085, 5245, 5285, 5305, 5445, 5485, 5645, 5685

Faculty of Natural Resources Management

Natural Resources Management 0190, 0290, 0390, 1010, 2055, 3232, 4010, 4030, 4212, 4214

Faculty of Science and Environmental Studies

Anthropology 1034, 2137, 2515, 3010

Biology 3012, 3232, 5770

Chemistry 2230, 3231, 3371, 3770, 4770

Chemistry and Materials Science 5111

Computer Science 5313, 5421

Economics 2117, 5111, 5113, 5115, 5117, 5118, 5119

Environmental Studies 3331, 3710, 3711, 4710, 4711

Environmental Sustainability 3073

Geography 2232, 3313, 3331

Physics 2331

Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities

Algonquian 1212, 1232, 2213, 2233

Criminology 2010, 2015, 2030, 2050, 2090, 4010, 4015, 4017, 4030, 4050, 4070, 4090, 4801

French 0500, 1000, 2101, 2201, 2417, 3517, 3610, 3650, 3814, 3834

Indigenous Learning 3010, 4411

Political Science 2311

Sociology 4013, 4551

Women’s Studies 5101

New Courses

The following are newly approved courses for the 2020-2021 Academic Calendar:

Faculty of Business

Business (Thunder Bay) 3091

Faculty of Education

Education 4746, 4781, 4872, 4783

Ojibwe 2002, 3002

Faculty of Engineering

Chemical Engineering 4011

Civil Engineering 0113

Electrical and Computer Engineering 6701

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences

Gerontology 2016

Health Sciences 5031, 6010, 6020, 6030, 6040, 6050, 6060 (9900)

Kinesiology 5012

Psychology 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2110, 2112, 3010, 3013, 3014, 3015, 3016, 3017, 3018, 3019, 3112, 3114, 3115, 4012, 4013, 4014, 4015, 4016, 4019

Faculty of Medicine

Medicine 5810, 5815, 5830, 5835, 5850, 5855, 5870, 5885

Faculty of Natural Resources Management

Natural Resources Management 5550

Faculty of Science and Environmental Studies

Anthropology 3012, 3013, 3014, 4012, 4013

Computer Science 5011, 5012, 5013, 5014, 5421, 5422

Economics 4110, 4131, 5110

Environmental Studies 2232, 3232

Environmental Sustainability 3074

Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities

Criminology 2311, 3011, 4011

French 3011, 3012

History 2612, 2614

Music 1010

Outdoor Recreation 4912

Sociology 5010

Women’s Studies 2012, 3215, 5010

Courses Removed

The following courses have been removed from the Academic Calendar (the last calendar these courses appear is 2019-2020):

Faculty of Business Administration

Business 3352, 3354, 3372, 3373, 3374, 4313, 4332, 4358, 4378

Faculty of Education

Education 3270, 4726

Faculty of Engineering

Electrical Engineering 0559, 3013

Engineering 0557, 2039

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences

Gerontology 4515

Psychology 2003, 2004, 2012, 2101, 2301, 2401, 2451, 2801, 2937, 3012, 3131, 3161, 3201, 3401, 3911, 3913

Faculty of Natural Resources Management

Natural Resources Management 4274, 4993

Faculty of Science and Environmental Studies

Anthropology 4417, 4419, 4430, 4450

Chemistry 4213

Economics 3131

Environmental Studies 3311

General Science 0310, 0370, 1015

Geography 3251, 3311, 3611

Mathematics 3371, 4112, 4218, 4219

Physics 2030

Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities

French 2413, 2416, 2611, 2615, 3815, 3835, 4517, 4533

History 2115, 2631, 2633, 3314, 3317, 4111, 4352, 4711, 4810

Interdisciplinary Studies 1010

Northern Studies 3314, 3317

Outdoor Recreation 4920

Philosophy 3517

Political Science 3359, 4711

Social Justice 5101, 5515

Sociology 4515

Spanish 3509

Changes to Programs

The following programs have been changed from the 2019-2020 Academic Calendar:

Faculty of Business Administration

Honours Bachelor of Commerce (Business Administration Major)
Honours Bachelor of Commerce (Business Administration Major) Co-operative Option
Honours Bachelor of Commerce (Global Entrepreneurship Major)
Honours Bachelor of Commerce (Global Entrepreneurship Major) Co-operative Option
Honours Bachelor of Commerce (Information Systems Major)

Faculty of Education

Two-Year Bachelor of Education (BEd) – Intermediate-Senior Specialization
Two-Year Bachelor of Education (BEd) – Primary-Junior Specialization
Honours BA, BEd (Sociology Major) P/J
Honours BESc, BEd (Biology Major) I/S
BESc4, BEd (Biology Major) I/S
Honours BASc, BEd (Geography Major) P/J
Honours BA, BEd (Geography Major) I/S
Honours BA, BEd (Geography Major) P/J
Honours BES, BEd (Geography Major) I/S
Honours BESc, BEd (Geography Major) I/S
Honours BSc, BEd (Geography Major) I/S
Honours BSc, BEd (Geography Major) P/J
BES4, BEd (Geography Major) I/S
BESc4, BEd (Geography Major) I/S
BASc, BEd (Interdisciplinary Studies) P/J
BASc 4 Year, BEd (Interdisciplinary Studies Major) P/J
Honours BASc, BEd (Interdisciplinary Studies) P/J
Honours BASc, BEd (Interdisciplinary Studies Major with Concentration in Environment in Politics and Culture) P/J
BASc 4 Year, BEd (Interdisciplinary Studies Major with Concentration in Environment in Politics and Culture) P/J
Honours BASc, BEd (Interdisciplinary Studies Major with Concentration in Human Nature) P/J
BASc 4 Year, BEd (Interdisciplinary Studies Major with Concentration in Human Nature) P/J
Honours BASc, BEd (Interdisciplinary Studies Major with Concentration in International Conflict and Human Rights) P/J
BASc 4 Year, BEd (Interdisciplinary Studies Major with Concentration in International Conflict and Human Rights) P/J
Honours BASc, BEd (Interdisciplinary Studies Major with Concentration in Social Justice) P/J
BASc 4 Year, BEd (Interdisciplinary Studies Major with Concentration in Social Justice) P/J
HBOR, BEd (Outdoor Recreation) I/S
HBOR, BEd (Outdoor Recreation) P/J
BA4, BEd (Psychology Major) I/S
BA4, BEd (Psychology Major) P/J
BA, BEd (Psychology Major) P/J
BSc4, BEd (Psychology Major) I/S
Honours BA, BEd (Psychology Major) I/S
Honours BA, BEd (Psychology Major) P/J
Honours BSc, BEd (Psychology Major) I/S

Faculty of Engineering

Bachelor of Engineering (Chemical Engineering)
Bachelor of Engineering (Civil Engineering)
PhD in Engineering

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences

Department of Health Sciences

Master of Health Sciences (Specialization in Epidemiology)
Master of Public Health with Specialization in Epidemiology (Course Option)
Master of Public Health with Specialization in Epidemiology (Thesis Option)

School of Kinesiology

Master of Science in Kinesiology
Master of Science in Kinesiology (Specialization in Gerontology)

Department of Psychology

BA (Psychology Major)
BA (Psychology Major) 4 Yr
BSc (Psychology Major)
BSc (Psychology Major) 4 Yr
Honours BA (Specialized Honours in Psychology)
Honours BA (Psychology Major)
Honours BSc (Specialized Honours in Psychology)
Honours BSc (Psychology Major
Honours BA (Philosophy and Psychology Majors)
Honours BA (Specialized Honours in Psychology) with Concentration in Women's Studies
Honours BA (Psychology and Women's Studies Majors)
Psychology Minor Program
BA4, BEd (Psychology Major) I/S
BA4, BEd (Psychology Major) P/J
BA, BEd (Psychology Major) P/J
BSc4, BEd (Psychology Major) I/S
Honours BA, BEd (Psychology Major) I/S
Honours BA, BEd (Psychology Major) P/J
Honours BSc, BEd (Psychology Major) I/S
Doctor of Philosophy in Psychology, Clinical Psychology

School of Social Work

Honours Bachelor of Social Work
Master of Social Work (Project Track)
Master of Social Work (Thesis Track)

Faculty of Natural Resources Management

Honours Bachelor of Environmental Management, Transfer Opportunities
Honours Bachelor of Science in Forestry, Transfer Opportunities
Master of Science in Forestry (Course Option)

Faculty of Science and Environmental Studies

Department of Biology

Honours Bachelor of Environmental Science (Biology Major)
Honours Bachelor of Environmental Science (Biology Major) – Transfer
Honours BESc, BEd (Biology Major) I/S
BESc4, BEd (Biology Major) I/S
BSc (Natural Science Major)/Honours Bachelor of Outdoor Recreation
BSc (Biology Major) with Concentration in Neuroscience 4 Yr
HBSc (Biology Major) with Concentration in Neuroscience

Department of Computer Science

Honours Bachelor in Computer Science -Combined Credential program with Georgian College

Department of Economics

Honours BSc (Resource and Environmental Economics)

Department of Geology

BSc (Water Resource Science Major) 4 Yr
BSc (Water Resource Science Major) Specialization in Applied Environmental Water Management 4 Yr
Honours BSc (Water Resource Science Major)
Honours BSc (Water Resource Science Major) Specialization in Applied Environmental Water Management
Honours BSc (Water Resource Science Major) - Transfer - Centennial College
Honours BSc (Water Resource Science Major) - Transfer - Durham College
Honours BSc (Water Resource Science Major) - Transfer - Fanshawe College
Honours BSc (Water Resource Science Major) - Transfer - Fleming College
Honours BSc (Water Resource Science Major) - Transfer - Georgian College
Honours BSc (Water Resource Science Major) - Transfer - Loyalist College
Honours BSc (Water Resource Science Major) - Transfer - Seneca College

Department of Geography and the Environment

Honours Bachelor of Environmental Studies (Geography Major)
Honours BES (Geography Major) – Transfer
Honours BES, BEd (Geography Major) I/S
Honours Bachelor of Environmental Science (Geography Major)
Honours Bachelor of Environmental Science (Geography Major) – Transfer
Honours BESc, BEd (Geography Major) I/S
BES4, BEd (Geography Major) I/S
BESc4, BEd (Geography Major) I/S
Honours BASc (Geography Major)
Honours BA (Geography Major)
Honours BASc, BEd (Geography Major) P/J
Honours BA, BEd (Geography Major) I/S
Honours BA, BEd (Geography Major) P/J
BA (Geography Major)/Honours Bachelor of Outdoor Recreation
Honours BSc (Geography Major)
Honours BSc, BEd (Geography Major) I/S
Honours BSc, BEd (Geography Major) P/J
Geomatics Certificate
Minor in Environmental Science
Minor in Environmental Studies

Department of Sustainability Sciences

Certificate in Environmental Sustainability
Honours BASc (Environmental Sustainability Major)

Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities

General Arts

Lakehead University Indigenous Transition Year Program

Department of History

Honours BA (History and Sociology Majors)

Department of Interdisciplinary Studies

Honours BASc (Criminology Major)
Honours BASc (Criminology Major) College Pathways Program
BASc (Interdisciplinary Studies Major)
BASc (Interdisciplinary Studies Major) College Pathways Program
BASc, BEd (Interdisciplinary Studies) P/J
BASc (Interdisciplinary Studies Major) 4 Yr
BASc 4 Year, BEd (Interdisciplinary Studies Major) P/J
Honours BAsc (Interdisciplinary Studies Major)
Honours BASc, BEd (Interdisciplinary Studies) P/J
Honours BASc (Interdisciplinary Studies Major) College Pathways Program
Honours BASc (Interdisciplinary Studies Major with Concentration in Environment in Politics and Culture)
Honours BASc, BEd (Interdisciplinary Studies Major with Concentration in Environment in Politics and Culture) P/J
BASc (Interdisciplinary Studies Major with Concentration in Environment in Politics and Culture) 4 Yr
BASc 4 Year, BEd (Interdisciplinary Studies Major with Concentration in Environment in Politics and Culture) P/J
Honours BASc (Interdisciplinary Studies Major with Concentration in Human Nature)
Honours BASc, BEd (Interdisciplinary Studies Major with Concentration in Human Nature) P/J
BASc (Interdisciplinary Studies Major with Concentration in Human Nature) 4 Yr
BASc 4 Year, BEd (Interdisciplinary Studies Major with Concentration in Human Nature) P/J
Honours BASc (Interdisciplinary Studies Major with Concentration in International Conflict and Human Rights)
Honours BASc, BEd (Interdisciplinary Studies Major with Concentration in International Conflict and Human Rights) P/J
BASc (Interdisciplinary Studies Major with Concentration in International Conflict and Human Rights) 4 Yr
BASc 4 Year, BEd (Interdisciplinary Studies Major with Concentration in International Conflict and Human Rights) P/J
Honours BASc (Interdisciplinary Studies Major with Concentration in Social Justice)
Honours BASc, BEd (Interdisciplinary Studies Major with Concentration in Social Justice) P/J
BASc (Interdisciplinary Studies Major with Concentration in Social Justice) 4 Yr
BASc 4 Year, BEd (Interdisciplinary Studies Major with Concentration in Social Justice) P/J
Honours BASc (Media, Film, & Communications Major)
Honours BASc (Media, Film, & Communications Major) Transfer Program – 3 year Graphic Design

School of Outdoor Recreation, Parks and Tourism

Honours Bachelor of Outdoor Recreation
Honours Bachelor of Outdoor Recreation – Transfer – Confederation College Tourism-Travel and Eco-Adventure Diploma
Honours Bachelor of Outdoor Recreation – Transfer – Dawson College Community Recreation and Leadership Training Diploma
Honours Bachelor of Outdoor Recreation – Transfer – Georgian College Recreation and Leisure Services Diploma
Honours Bachelor of Outdoor Recreation – Transfer – Georgian College Tourism-Marketing and Product Development Diploma
Honours Bachelor of Outdoor Recreation – Transfer – Sault College Adventure Recreation and Parks Technician
Honours Bachelor of Outdoor Recreation (with Concentration in Nature-Based Therapeutic Recreation)
Honours Bachelor of Outdoor Recreation (with Concentration in Nature-Based Therapeutic Recreation) – Transfer – Confederation College Recreation Therapy Diploma
HBOR, BEd (Outdoor Recreation) I/S
HBOR, BEd (Outdoor Recreation) P/J
Bachelor of Outdoor Recreation 4 Yr
BA (Geography Major)/Honours Bachelor of Outdoor Recreation
BA (History Major)/Honours Bachelor of Outdoor Recreation
BA (Women’s Studies Major)/Honours Bachelor of Outdoor Recreation
BSc (Natural Science Major)/Honours Bachelor of Outdoor Recreation

Department of Sociology

BA (Sociology Major)
Honours BA (History and Sociology Majors)
Honours BA (Sociology Major)
Honours BA, BEd (Sociology Major) P/J
Honours BA (Sociology Major) Transfer Program
Honours BA (Sociology and Women’s Studies Majors)
Sociology Minor Program

Department of Women’s Studies

Honours BA (Sociology and Women’s Studies Majors)
Honours BA (Specialized Honours in Psychology) with Concentration in Women's Studies
Honours BA (Psychology and Women's Studies Majors)

New Programs

The following are newly approved programs for the 2020-2021 Academic Calendar:

Faculty of Business Administration

Honours Bachelor of Commerce (Business Administration Major) – 3-year College Transfer Program
Bachelor of Administration - Transfer - Graduates of a 2 Year College Diploma

Faculty of Engineering

Chemical Engineering

Master of Science in Chemical Engineering (Course Option)
Master of Science in Chemical Engineering (Course Option) Co-operative Option

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences

Department of Health Sciences

PhD in Health Sciences
Minor in Aging and Health

School of Kinesiology

Honours Bachelor of Kinesiology – Transfer – College Boreal Fitness & Health Promotion Diploma
Honours Bachelor of Kinesiology – Transfer – College Boreal Massage Therapy Diploma
Honours Bachelor of Kinesiology – Transfer – College Boreal Occupational Therapy Assistant/Physiotherapy Assistant Diploma
Honours Bachelor of Kinesiology – Transfer – Cambrian College Physical Fitness Management Diploma
Honours Bachelor of Kinesiology - Transfer - Canadore College Strength and Sport Conditioning Diploma
Honours Bachelor of Kinesiology – Transfer – Sault College Fitness & Health Promotion Diploma
Honours Bachelor of Kinesiology – Transfer – Sault College Occupational Therapist Assistant/Physiotherapist Assistant Diploma
Bachelor of Kinesiology, 4 year

Faculty of Medicine

Master of Medical Studies (MMS) Program

Faculty of Science and Environmental Studies

Department of Computer Science

Bachelor of Science (Computer Science Major) 4-year (Lakehead/Georgian Partnership)
Honours Bachelor of Science (Computer Science Major) - Transfer - Confederation College
Master of Science in Computer Science (Specialization in Artificial Intelligence) (Thesis Option)

Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities

Department of English

Honours Bachelor of Arts (English Major) – Transfer – Confederation College Film Production Diploma
Master of Arts in English (Specialization in Social Justice Studies) (Course-Work Option)
Master of Arts in English (Specialization in Social Justice Studies) (Creative-Project Option)
Master of Arts in English (Specialization in Social Justice Studies) (Research-Project Option)

Programs Removed

The following programs have been removed from the Academic Calendar (the last calendar these programs appear is 2019-2020):

Faculty of Education

BA, BEd (Psychology Major) I/S
BSc, BEd (Psychology Major) I/S

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences

Department of Health Sciences

BA (Gerontology Major)
Honours BA (Gerontology and Psychology Majors)
Honours BA (Sociology) with Concentration in Gerontology
Honours BA (Gerontology and Women’s Studies Majors)
Honours Bachelor of Social Work with Concentration in Gerontology
Minor in Gerontology

Department of Psychology

BA (Psychology and Philosophy Majors)
Honours BA (Gerontology and Psychology Majors)
BA, BEd (Psychology Major) I/S
BSc, BEd (Psychology Major) I/S

School of Social Work

Honours Bachelor of Social Work with Concentration in Gerontology

Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities

Department of Philosophy

BA (Psychology and Philosophy Majors)

Department of Sociology

Master of Arts in Sociology with Graduate Diploma in Health Services and Policy Research (Paper)
Master of Arts in Sociology with Graduate Diploma in Health Services and Policy Research (Thesis)
Master of Arts in Sociology (Specialization in Gerontology)/Graduate Diploma in Health Services and Policy Research (Paper)
Master of Arts in Sociology (Specialization in Gerontology)/Graduate Diploma in Health Services and Policy Research (Thesis)
Master of Arts in Sociology (Specialization in Women’s Studies)/Graduate Diploma in Health Services and Policy Research (Paper)
Master of Arts in Sociology (Specialization in Women’s Studies)/Graduate Diploma in Health Services and Policy Research (Thesis)

Department of Women’s Studies

Honours BA (Sociology) with Concentration in Gerontology
Honours BA (Gerontology and Women’s Studies Majors)