Faculty of Forestry and the Forest Environment Degrees

The Faculty of Forestry and the Forest Environment offers three graduate programs: the Master of Science in Forestry, the Master of Forestry and the Doctor of Philosophy in Forest Sciences (see page 302).


The MScF is a research-oriented degree designed to give graduates a firm foundation in the process of scientific inquiry. Most research projects are undertaken in one or more of the biophysical forest sciences, but social science research may also be undertaken. Research projects are designed jointly by the student and the faculty member who serves as the student's Supervisor.


The MF focusses on developing advanced skills of professional practice in forest decision-making. It emphasizes use and integration of forest-related knowledge to address current and future forest-related problems.


Admission to the MScF and MF programs is governed by Lakehead University's general regulations for graduate programs (see pp 267-269). Additional requirements of the Faculty of Forestry and the Forest Environment include availability of a supervisor and appropriate funding. Applicants to the MF program who have completed the Ontario Advanced Forestry Program (OAFP) may apply for advanced credit.

To ensure an adequate understanding of the core elements of forestry, applicants holding a four-year degree of adequate standing (i.e., B or better) in an allied discipline (e.g., biology, geography, agriculture, environmental studies, resource management, outdoor recreation) may be required to take up to two full-course equivalents at the undergraduate level. This requirement is additional to the graduate courses of the chosen program. Upon admission, the student's supervisor prepares a proposal for fulfilling the allied-discipline requirement, based on the student's undergraduate courses already taken, and submits it to the Forestry Graduate Studies Committee for approval.

An applicant with inadequate academic background or standing may be invited to take four full-course equivalents (minimum) in forestry at the undergraduate level. If performance in these courses averages B or better, the applicant may then apply for admission to one of the graduate programs.

Application deadline is February 1. Late applications will be considered for admission, but may not be eligible for funding.


Upon first registration, each student, in conjunction with the Supervisor and Advisory Committee, prepares a tentative program of study including course work and thesis/project proposal. Students who intend to undertake their studies full-time must plan for their program to be completed within two years. Part-time options are also available (see general regulations for graduate studies, Period of Study, on page 268). Programs of study are filed with the Chair of the Forestry Graduate Studies Committee for subsequent approval by the Committee.

In either the MScF or MF program, students may take up to one full course equivalent at the graduate level within other academic units at Lakehead University, and up to one full course equivalent at the senior undergraduate level within the Faculty of Forestry and the Forest Environment. All such courses must be approved by the Supervisor and the Forestry Graduate Studies Committee.


For all students entering the program in September 2007 or later, the MScF program requirements include two full course equivalents, a research thesis (worth two and one-half full course equivalents), and the half-course Graduate Seminar (Forestry 5995), for a total of 5 FCEs.

The thesis, when deemed ready by the Supervisor and Advisory Committee, is examined externally (administered by the Office of Graduate and Interntional Studies). When the external examination has been satisfactorily completed, the student must defend the thesis in a public oral presentation and examination. The Examining Committee at the defence normally consists of the Supervisor and Advisory Committee. The minimum residency requirement for the MScF program is one academic year.


The MF program requirements include three and one-half full course equivalents, a project report (worth one full course equivalent), and the half-course Graduate Seminar (Forestry 5995), for a total of 5 FCEs. At a time deemed appropriate by the student, Supervisor and Advisory Committee, the student makes a public oral presentation of the project report to the Faculty, followed by an oral examination by the Advisory Committee. Normally, for full-time students, the minimum residency is one academic year. For students who have earned advanced credit for a complete OAFP certificate, and for part-time students taking mostly distance courses, the minimum residency requirement is one term.

Students may not qualify for both degrees (MScF, MF) concurrently, and may only count a particular course once in the completion of one degree; a second degree requires other courses.


Courses not offered this academic year (fall/winter terms) are indicated by the words "NOT OFFERED THIS YEAR" below the course description. Nevertheless, students should refer to the Timetable as a final check.

The following courses are offered for the MScF and MF programs. Specific courses may be offered in any academic year, depending on instructor availability and level of student interest. Students should refer to the Timetable and the Chair, Forestry Graduate Studies Committee, as final checks.

(Information about Course Numbering System)

Forestry 5131
Topics in Forest Ecology
2-3; or 2-3
An advanced lecture and laboratory course in the ecology of forest trees and/or stands with emphasis on relationships pertinent to the establishment, maintenance and productivity of commercial forests. Each session of the course will include an intensive examination of one or two topics which will vary from year to year. Example topics include biogeochemical cycling, plantation ecology and soil microbiology. Potential students should consult with instructor regarding the current year's topics.

Forestry 5132 (ST)
Special Topics
A half-course offering opportunities for in-depth analysis of special topics in forestry.

Forestry 5162 (ST)
Special Topics
A full course offering opportunities for in-depth analysis of special topics in forestry.

Forestry 5163
Forest Soils and Tree Mineral Nutrition
2-3; 2-3
The course reviews soil processes and soil-forming factors. In-depth analysis of concepts of tree mineral nutrition, soil chemistry and soil physics is undertaken. Current developments in forest soil science are examined in a seminar format.

Forestry 5233
Operational Efficiency and Analysis in Wood Procurement
2-3; 0-0
Students will study operational efficiency and techniques used in the development, analysis and evaluation of wood procurement equipment, systems, work methods, and organizations.

Forestry 5253
Wood Procurement Planning, Scheduling and Control
0-0; 2-3
Students will study and model wood procurement planning, scheduling and control. Wood procurement will be studied taking into account the overall economy of a firm, as well as the social, silvicultural and natural environments in which it operates.

Forestry 5273
Tree Ecophysiology I
3-0; or 3-0
Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor
A study of ecophysiological principles and mechanisms of woody plants.

Forestry 5274
Tree Ecophysiology II
3-0; or 3-0
Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor
A study of techniques and instrumentation commonly used in tree ecophysiological research.

Forestry 5410
Wood Microbiology
0-0; 3-0
An advanced course in understanding wood deterioration as it occurs in natural ecosystems and wood products. Emphasis will be placed on the causes of wood deterioration and its control. Laboratory exercises will focus on both the positive and negative aspects of wood decomposition as they relate to forest biotechnology and wood preservation.

Forestry 5430
Advanced Forest Pathology
0-0; 3-0
An advanced course in the concepts and methods used in artificial forest ecosystems. The course will expand on the number of tree diseases covered. Particular emphasis will focus on the diseases associated with tree nurseries and plantation diseases in both conifers and hardwoods. Some time will be devoted to readings and discussions on the ablotic agents implicated in tree diseases such as air pollution and acid precipitation.

Forestry 5480
Advanced Geographic Information Systems Applications
2-3; 2-3
A study of GIS technologies and their applications and limitations as a natural resources management tool. Hands-on computerized data base management analysis is an integral part of the course. The links between GIS and remote sensing techniques will be demonstrated.

Forestry 5510
Research Methods I: Philosophy and General Methods of Science
3-0; 0-0
The course title admits a wide variety of philosophical and practical topics including: the nature, origin, and limits of scientific knowledge; the scientific literature; library research methods; research problem analysis; research proposals; project management and reporting research results. In any particular year, student interests influence the emphasis given to these and related topics.

Forestry 5530
Research Methods II: Experimental Design in Forestry Research
0-0; 2-3
Prerequisite: Mathematics 2321 or permission of the instructor
The design, execution and analysis of forestry experiments. Four basic design structures are treated: completely randomized, randomized complete blocks, split-plot, and nested. One way, factorial and nested treatment structures are discussed. Additional topics include incomplete block designs, fractional factorial designs and response surface designs. Students learn how to decide whether a proposed design is well suited to their purposes and how to make ill-suited designs better. As a term project, students execute, analyze and report on an experiment of their own design.

Forestry 5550
Applications of Sampling Techniques in Forestry
3-0; or 3-0
Topics will include equal and unequal probability sampling techniques at one and multiple levels with estimation of ratios, means, totals and the precision of such estimates. Particular applications of sampling techniques to forestry populations will be emphasized.

Forestry 5575
Application of Modelling in Forest Management
2-3; or 2-3
An introduction to the mathematical modelling of systems of forest management. Single-use and multiple-use models are covered. Students will develop their own modelling projects as the course progresses.

Forestry 5650
Forecasting in Forest Management
3-0; or 3-0
An introduction to forecasting methods as may be applied in forest management. Emphasis is placed on use of simulation models to forecast forest dynamics under alternative management strategies. Students undertake special projects to learn how to compress, display and interpret analytical outputs.

Forestry 5670
Forest Management Science II
0-0; 3-0
Examination and use of quantitative models in forest management planning. The nature of forest management planning problems is discussed in detail, and quantitative models for addressing these problems are examined, critiqued and applied. Students present seminars on assigned topics, and complete a major term project.

Forestry 5710
Tree Improvement I: First Generation
2-3; or 2-3
A study of the principles and methods used for the capture of useful components of genetic variation for the first generation improvement of Canadian tree species. Topics include the identification of breeding zones, establishment of seed zones, physiological basis of genetic variation in yield, selection criteria, selection strategies, ideotypes, and seed orchard design. A lab project(s) in one or more of the areas of experimental selection criteria, short term progeny testing, and computer assisted seed orchard design will be completed jointly by each class.

Forestry 5740
Advanced Remote Sensing Applications
2-3; 2-3
A study of airborne and spaceborne sensor systems, their applications and limitations. Techniques for data acquisition, registration, enhancement, and analysis will be included. Hands-on computer-based image analysis (ERDAS) is an integral part of the course. Applications will include forest depletion mapping, vegetation, stress detection and monitoring, as well as land-use inventory. The link between remote sensing and a GIS will be demonstrated.

Forestry 5750
Resource Management
3-0; or 3-0
An in-depth evaluation of the methodologies available for resolving land use problems. The theory and practical limits of different methods are examined. Application of methods to an area is studied. The course is a lecture (1.5 hours per week) and a seminar (1.5 hours per week). A project is involved as well as a final exam.

Forestry 5755
Park Systems and Management Planning
3-0; or 3-0
The planning and management of parks and other protected areas is examined from two perspectives. (1) Park systems planning: the process of identifying, evaluating and selecting candidate park areas. This process affords opportunities to consider policy issues related to parks and protected areas and their relationships with surrounding areas and peoples. (2) Park management planning: the process of making decisions about the protection and use of park and protected area environments. This process focuses on visitor behaviour, environmental impacts, and planning frameworks designed to reconcile use and protection.

Forestry 5770
Management Strategies for Forests
3-0; or 3-0
A study of the historical and present, national and international development of forest management. The relationship of present management systems in Canada compared to those of our competitors. An estimation of the future trend of management techniques. A lecture-seminar course with 50% of the mark for an application project and 50% for a final exam.

Forestry 5810
Forest Policy
3-0; or 3-0
An advanced course in forest policy development and analysis. Working individually and in small teams, students will conduct descriptive, evaluative, and prescriptive analyses of proposed and current forest policies. Students will prepare papers and present formal seminars on assigned topics, and complete a major term project.

Forestry 5815
Environmental Assessment
3-0; or 3-0
Environmental assessment (EA) processes and procedures, scientific and analytical protocols, and the role of EA in forest management are presented and student's skills developed in analyzing environmental impacts and EA documents. Students performance is evaluated through a variety of analytical, written and oral projects as well as class participation.

Forestry 5830
Ultrastructure of Wood
0-0; 2-3
To appreciate the structure of wood at the ultrastructure level. The origin and formation of cell wall, microfibril orientation, layering of cell wall structure, pitting of the cell, warty layer and tyloses will be discussed. The difference between normal wood and reaction wood will also be stressed. The techniques and theory of electron microscopy applied to wood structure will be introduced.

Forestry 5850
Fibre Morphology
2-3; 0-0
The morphology of fibre and its variation within a standing tree in a nature stand and a man-made forest will be introduced. The impact of various silvicultural treatments on fibre quality for various forest products, including pulp and paper, will be discussed. Students will have to present a 20-minute seminar based on his/her literature review in the subject areas or a small project related to the fibre morphology study.

Forestry 5870
International Resource Conservation
0-0; 3-0
Conservation, the managed-use of natural resources, must become an explicit element in economic development decisions and programs. International economic relationships pose particular problems for environmental management in many developing countries. Students will examine the nature and extent of some of the problems and consider ways in which the international community can deal more effectively with environmental concerns. Emphasis will be placed on the social, economic and cultural aspects of the issues. Course format includes readings, student-led seminar discussions, and short written assignments.

Forestry 5901 (9901)
MScF Thesis

Forestry 5980 (9980)
MF Report

Forestry 5995
Graduate Seminar in Forestry
0-0; 3-0
The art of preparing and delivering technical presentations is acquired through hands-on activities such as giving impromptu and prepared talks and chairing the weekly sessions. Each student is required to give two short talks and a 30-minute seminar.


See also:
Faculty of Graduate Studies
- Information/Regulations
- Faculty of Forestry and the Forest Environment
- Faculty
- PhD Program (and faculty)

Faculty of Forestry and the Forest Environment - Undergraduate Programs


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2007-2008 Calendar version