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Biology (BIOL) Courses Listing

Biology 1110 Animal Biology View Details
An introduction to the study of the structure, function and organization of animal life. Discussion of the evolution and classification of major invertebrate and vertebrate animal phyla, animal body plans and reproductive strategies.
Credit Weight: 0.5
Offering: 0-0; 3-3
Notes: An additional fee (see Miscellaneous Fees) is required for this course.
Course Classifications: Type C: Engineering, Mathematical and Natural Sciences

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Biology 1130 Plant Biology View Details
An introduction to plant diversity stressing the evolution of plants. Comparative morphology of vegetative and reproductive structures will be emphasized. Topics will also include functional anatomy, photosynthesis and respiration.
Credit Weight: 0.5
Offering: 3-3; 0-0
Notes: An additional fee (see Miscellaneous Fees) is required for this course.
Course Classifications: Type C: Engineering, Mathematical and Natural Sciences

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Biology 2011 Human Musculoskeletal Anatomy View Details
Anatomical systems/topics covered are the integumentary, muscular, and skeletal systems as well as arthrology. Laboratory work includes the study of the cat as a representative animal.
Credit Weight: 0.5
Offering: 3-3;0-0
Notes: An additional fee (see Miscellaneous Fees) is required for this course.
Course Classifications:
  • Type C: Engineering, Mathematical and Natural Sciences
  • Type D: Health and Behavioral Sciences

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Biology 2012 Human Internal Anatomy View Details
Anatomical systems covered are nervous, cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive, reproductive, urinary and endocrine. Laboratory work includes the study of the cat as a representative animal.
Credit Weight: 0.5
Offering: 0-0; 3-3
Notes: An additional fee (see Miscellaneous Fees) is required for this course.
Course Classifications:
  • Type C: Engineering, Mathematical and Natural Sciences
  • Type D: Health and Behavioral Sciences

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Biology 2030 Introductory Human Physiology View Details
The fundamental principles of organ system physiology with special emphasis on mammals. Cell structure and transport, neural signaling and the central nervous system, muscle, circulation, gas exchange and osmoregulation. The practical application and relevance of certain physiological concepts is enhanced through clinical examples.
Credit Weight: 0.5
Offering: 3-3; or 3-3
Notes: May only be taken by students in Nursing and Kinesiology degree programs. Students who have previous credit in Biology 2030 may not take Biology 3250 or 3251 or 3253 for credit. An additional fee (see Miscellaneous Fees) is required for this course.
Course Classifications:
  • Type C: Engineering, Mathematical and Natural Sciences
  • Type D: Health and Behavioral Sciences

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Biology 2035 Human Physiology Survey View Details
A didactic overview of select human physiological systems without laboratory exercises and is suitable for students who seek a limited introduction to this topic. Not recommended for students in Biology or Natural Science programs.
Credit Weight: 0.5
Offering: 0-0; 3-0
Notes: Students may not receive credit for this course in addition to Biology 2030. Students who have previous credit in Biology 2035 may not take Biology 3250 or 3251 or 3253 for credit. May be used as a Science credit for students in Education degree programs.
Course Classifications: Type C: Engineering, Mathematical and Natural Sciences

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Biology 2050 Tree Development and Function View Details
A basic review of tree anatomy, morphology and physiology covering the following topics: shoot and root development and their internal controls, formation and function of xylem and phloem, translocation, water relations, correlations and control of tree form, assimilation, nutrition, sexual and asexual reproduction.
Credit Weight: 0.5
Offering: 3-3; 0-0
Notes: An additional fee (see Miscellaneous Fees) is required for this course.
Course Classifications: Type C: Engineering, Mathematical and Natural Sciences

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Biology 2051 Flowering Plant Taxonomy View Details
See Faculty of Natural Resources Management, Natural Resources Management Courses, Natural Resources Management 2050, for full course description.
Credit Weight: 0.5
Cross-List(s): Natural Resources Management 2050
Course Classifications: Type C: Engineering, Mathematical and Natural Sciences

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Biology 2070 Human Structure View Details
Human anatomy of selected organs/systems, with emphasis on the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, circulatory, respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems.
Credit Weight: 0.5
Offering: 3-3; 0-0
Notes: Only students in BSc Nursing may register in and receive credit for Biology 2070. An additional fee (see Miscellaneous Fees) is required for this course.
Course Classifications:
  • Type C: Engineering, Mathematical and Natural Sciences
  • Type D: Health and Behavioral Sciences

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Biology 2110 Forest Soils and Water I View Details
See Faculty of Natural Resources Management, Natural Resources Management Courses, Natural Resources Management 2110, for full course description.
Credit Weight: 0.5
Cross-List(s): Natural Resources Management 2110
Course Classifications: Type C: Engineering, Mathematical and Natural Sciences

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Biology 2131 Regional Flowering Plants View Details
A course on the identification of common native and introduced flowering plants of the Lakehead area. Special attention will be given to the local forest flora. Field trips will be arranged. Students will also be expected to make a plant collection.
Credit Weight: 0.5
Offering: 2-3; 0-0
Course Classifications: Type C: Engineering, Mathematical and Natural Sciences

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Biology 2171 Genetics View Details
An introduction to the principles of inheritance, modern gene concepts and basic population genetics is presented in a lecture, laboratory and problem-solving format.
Credit Weight: 0.5
Offering: 3-3; or 3-3
Notes: An additional fee (see Miscellaneous Fees) is required for this course.
Course Classifications: Type C: Engineering, Mathematical and Natural Sciences

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Biology 2210 Introductory Ecology View Details
Interrelationships of plants and animals with the environment. The distribution and dynamics of plant and animal communities. Aspects of applied ecology and conservation.
Credit Weight: 0.5
Cross-List(s): Environmental Studies 2210
Offering: 3-3; 0-0
Notes: An additional fee (see Miscellaneous Fees) is required for this course.
Course Classifications: Type C: Engineering, Mathematical and Natural Sciences

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Biology 2230 Cell Biology View Details
Methodology used in studying cell structure and composition will be outlined and the following metabolic processes will be discussed in relation to their subcellular localization: energy conversion, DNA replication and gene expression, membrane function, polysaccharide synthesis, hydrolytic reactions.
Credit Weight: 0.5
Offering: 0-0; 3-1
Course Classifications: Type C: Engineering, Mathematical and Natural Sciences

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Biology 2310 History of Biology View Details
Development of fundamental concepts in biology from Antiquity to contemporary times, with emphasis on species and researchers that have progressively expanded human knowledge of the living world.
Credit Weight: 0.5
Offering: 3-0; or 3-0 May also be offered in the spring/summer term.
Course Classifications: Type C: Engineering, Mathematical and Natural Sciences

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Biology 2711 Biology of Microorganisms View Details
An introduction to microbial cell biology, genetics and interactions between microorganisms and humans. Laboratory work includes basic microbiological techniques and identification of microorganisms.
Credit Weight: 0.5
Offering: 3-3; 0-0
Notes: Restricted to Biology or Applied Bio-Molecular Science majors, except with permission of the instructor. An additional fee (see Miscellaneous Fees) is required for this course.
Course Classifications: Type C: Engineering, Mathematical and Natural Sciences

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Biology 2713 Introduction to Microbiology View Details
An introduction to microbial cell biology, host response to pathogens and public health aspects of microbiology.
Credit Weight: 0.5
Offering: 0-0; 3-0
Notes: Restricted to Nursing majors.
Course Classifications:
  • Type C: Engineering, Mathematical and Natural Sciences
  • Type D: Health and Behavioral Sciences

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Biology 2910 Laboratory Biology View Details
Introduction to basic laboratory techniques: pipetting, preparation of media, aseptic technique, cell disruption, protein purification and analysis, electrophoresis, chromatography. Development of skills in such areas as: laboratory note-keeping, reporting, graphical presentation of data, information searching.
Credit Weight: 0.5
Offering: 0-0; 1-5
Notes: An additional fee (see Miscellaneous Fees) is required for this course.
Course Classifications: Type C: Engineering, Mathematical and Natural Sciences

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Biology 3010 Physiology of Exercise I View Details
See School of Kinesiology, Kinesiology Courses, Kinesiology 3010,  for full course description.
Credit Weight: 0.5
Cross-List(s): Kinesiology 3010
Course Classifications:
  • Type C: Engineering, Mathematical and Natural Sciences
  • Type D: Health and Behavioral Sciences

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Biology 3011 Physiology of Exercise II View Details
See School of Kinesiology, Kinesiology Courses, Kinesiology 3011, for full course description.
Credit Weight: 0.5
Cross-List(s): Kinesiology 3011
Course Classifications:
  • Type C: Engineering, Mathematical and Natural Sciences
  • Type D: Health and Behavioral Sciences

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Biology 3012 Aboriginal Ethnobotany View Details
An examination of the relationship of aboriginal people to the plant kingdom. The course will cover how plants are viewed by aboriginal people and their usage of plants for nourishment, ceremonial, medicinal and utilitarian purposes. Emphasis will be on First Nations practices with plants in North America with a particular focus on Northwestern Ontario.
Credit Weight: 0.5
Prerequisite(s):

Biology 1130, Chemistry 1110, Chemistry 1130, Chemistry 2211

Offering: 2-3; or 2-3
Notes: A course fee for field and laboratory activities will be required.
Course Classifications:
  • Type C: Engineering, Mathematical and Natural Sciences
  • Type E: Indigenous Content

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Biology 3112 Biostatistics View Details
This course emphasizes the importance of visual representation of data, experimental design, and the analysis of biological and ecological data using the statistical program R.
Credit Weight: 0.5
Prerequisite(s):

One of Mathematics 2310, Mathematics 3332 or Mathematics 4030

Offering: 3-2; or 3-2
Notes: A tutorial in addition to in-class instruction is part of the course.
Course Classifications: Type C: Engineering, Mathematical and Natural Sciences

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Biology 3114 Plant Ecology View Details
Theories, concepts and methods in the study of plant ecology are discussed with special reference to the concept of community, ecosystem, succession and species' vital attributes. Technical writing based on field studies, hands-on labs, ecological data analysis and interpretation are required components of the course including a seminar presentation on a contemporary topic in plant ecology.
Credit Weight: 0.5
Offering: 3-3; 0-0
Notes: Students who have previous credit in Biology 3141 may not take Biology 3114 for credit. An additional fee (see Miscellaneous Fees) is required for this course.
Course Classifications: Type C: Engineering, Mathematical and Natural Sciences

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Biology 3135 Molecular Genetics View Details
See Interdisciplinary Programs in Applied Bio-Molecular Science, Applied Bio-Molecular Science Courses, Applied Bio-Molecular Science 3135, for full course description.
Credit Weight: 0.5
Cross-List(s): Applied Bio-Molecular Science 3135
Notes: An additional fee (see Miscellaneous Fees) is required for this course.
Course Classifications: Type C: Engineering, Mathematical and Natural Sciences

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Biology 3138 Introduction to DNA Molecular Methods View Details
See Department of Anthropology, Anthropology Courses, Anthropology 3138, for full course description.
Credit Weight: 0.5
Cross-List(s): Anthropology 3138
Notes: An additional fee (see Miscellaneous Fees) is required for this course.
Course Classifications: Type C: Engineering, Mathematical and Natural Sciences

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Biology 3139 Molecular Anthropology View Details
See Department of Anthropology, Anthropology Courses, Anthropology 3139, for full course description.
Credit Weight: 0.5
Cross-List(s): Anthropology 3139
Course Classifications: Type C: Engineering, Mathematical and Natural Sciences

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Biology 3151 Biogeography View Details
A study of the distribution and dispersal of organisms. An examination of how biotic and abiotic factors interact and species distributions respond to dynamic environmental processes such as climate and glaciation. Topics covered include: history of biogeography, distribution of species, communities, and biomes; speciation and extinction, endemism, dispersal, history of lineages and biotas, patterns of continental and oceanic diversity, island biogeography, and human impacts on species distribution.
Credit Weight: 0.5
Offering: 3-0; or 3-0
Course Classifications: Type C: Engineering, Mathematical and Natural Sciences

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Biology 3212 Invertebrate Zoology View Details
An introductory course dealing with the major phyla of invertebrate animals with emphasis on form and function.
Credit Weight: 0.5
Offering: 3-3; or 3-3
Notes: Students who have previous credit in Biology 3221 may not take Biology 3212 for credit. An additional fee (see Miscellaneous Fees) is required for this course.
Course Classifications: Type C: Engineering, Mathematical and Natural Sciences

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Biology 3213 Forest Pathology View Details
See Faculty of Natural Resources Management, Natural Resources Management Courses, Natural Resources Management 3213, for full course description.
Credit Weight: 0.5
Cross-List(s): Natural Resources Management 3213
Course Classifications: Type C: Engineering, Mathematical and Natural Sciences

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Biology 3217 Forest Entomology View Details
See Faculty of Natural Resources Management, Natural Resources Management Courses, Natural Resources Management 3217, for full course description.
Credit Weight: 0.5
Cross-List(s): Natural Resources Management 3217
Notes: Note: An insect collection is required and attendance at a workshop in March prior to registration is mandatory.
Course Classifications: Type C: Engineering, Mathematical and Natural Sciences

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Biology 3219 The Evolution of Vertebrates View Details
Survey of vertebrate animals with an evolutionary and paleontological perspective on their adaptive features. Laboratory sessions examine morphological, anatomical, and behavioural characteristics, with special reference to comparative locomotory, feeding, and reproductive strategies.
Credit Weight: 0.5
Prerequisite(s): Biology 1110 or permission of the instructor
Offering: 3-3; or 3-3
Notes: Students who have previous credit in Biology 3201 may not take Biology 3219 for credit. An additional fee (see Miscellaneous Fees) is required for this course.
Course Classifications: Type C: Engineering, Mathematical and Natural Sciences

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Biology 3232 Conservation Biology View Details
An introduction to the fundamental concepts and issues relevant to conservation biology emphasizing threats to biological diversity, how those threats are recognized, and strategies employed to mitigate those threats. Additional topics will include the history and development of Conservation as a discipline, and the consequences of ethics, economics, and legislation and other social influences on conservation outcomes. Tutorials will investigate contemporary topics in conservation, allowing students to critically consider issues relevant to conservation. Tutorials will also allow for guest speakers to present topical information to the class, as available.
Credit Weight: 0.5
Prerequisite(s): Biology 2171 and Biology 2210
Cross-List(s): Natural Resources Management 3232
Offering: 3-2; or 3-2

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Biology 3250 Comparative Animal Physiology View Details
Overview of the major physiological systems of the animal body with particular emphasis on mammals. Topics covered will include but not necessarily be restricted to: form and function of neural systems including sensory and motor pathways, endocrine systems, the musculoskeletal system and locomotion, thermoregulatory strategies, cardiovascular systems and fluid compartments of the body, and respiration.
Credit Weight: 0.5
Prerequisite(s):

Biology 1110

Offering: 3-3; or 3-3
Notes: Students who have previous credit in Biology 2030 may not take Biology 3250 or 3251 or 3253 for credit. An additional fee (see Miscellaneous Fees) is required for this course.
Course Classifications: Type C: Engineering, Mathematical and Natural Sciences

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Biology 3251 Animal Physiology: Organ System Operation and Regulation View Details
A comparative study of animal organ system physiology. Areas to be discussed include the structure, operation and regulation of muscle, cardiovascular systems, osmotic and ionic regulation, respiratory- and gastrointestinal systems.
Credit Weight: 0.5
Prerequisite(s): Biology 3250 or permission of the instructor
Offering: 0-0; 3-3
Notes: Students who have previous credit in Biology 2035 may not take Biology 3250 or 3251 or 3253 for credit. An additional fee (see Miscellaneous Fees) is required for this course.
Course Classifications: Type C: Engineering, Mathematical and Natural Sciences

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Biology 3252 Biochemistry I View Details
See Department of Chemistry, Chemistry Courses, Chemistry 3251, for full course description.
Credit Weight: 0.5
Cross-List(s): Chemistry 3251
Course Classifications: Type C: Engineering, Mathematical and Natural Sciences

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Biology 3253 Animal Physiology: Intracellular Communication and Coordination View Details
An examination of integrated intracellular communication mechanisms which enable extracellular messengers, including hormones, neurotransmitters and drugs, to exert their effects. Areas to be discussed include primary messenger receptors, intracellular signaling mechanism, and cellular adaptation to messenger stimuli.
Credit Weight: 0.5
Offering: 3-0; 0-0
Notes: Students who have previous credit in Biology 2035 may not take Biology 3250 or 3251 or 3253 for credit.
Course Classifications: Type C: Engineering, Mathematical and Natural Sciences

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Biology 3272 Biochemistry II View Details
See Department of Chemistry, Chemistry Courses, Chemistry 3271, for full course description.
Credit Weight: 0.5
Cross-List(s): Chemistry 3271
Course Classifications: Type C: Engineering, Mathematical and Natural Sciences

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Biology 3313 Ecological Structure in Northern Environments View Details
The application of ecological and evolutionary concepts to understand and conserve ecological structure of northern ecosystems.
Credit Weight: 0.5
Cross-List(s): Northern Studies 3313/Environmental Studies 3313
Offering: 0-0; 3-0
Course Classifications: Type C: Engineering, Mathematical and Natural Sciences

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Biology 3330 Molecular Biology of Development View Details
DNA replication and repair; cell cycle regulation. The role of differential gene expression in the regulation of development of model organisms: Drosophila, Caenorhabditis, yeasts, amphibians and mice.
Credit Weight: 0.5
Prerequisite(s): Biology 2230 and 2910 or permission of the instructor
Offering: 3-0; 0-0
Course Classifications: Type C: Engineering, Mathematical and Natural Sciences

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Biology 3351 Plants and People View Details
An introduction to the basic and essential relationship between plants (as food and resource) and humans (as dependent consumers), in the context of local food security, with emphasis on the origins and history of important temperate and tropical crop plants and their effect on civilization. Ethnobotany principles and methods will be introduced. A different independent community service learning project pertaining to local wild or cultivated plants will be designed each year, resulting in a written report.
Credit Weight: 0.5
Offering: 3-0; or 3-0
Course Classifications: Type C: Engineering, Mathematical and Natural Sciences

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Biology 3450 Biology of the Fungi View Details
See Faculty of Natural Resources Management, Natural Resources Management Courses, Natural Resources Management 3450, for full course description.
Credit Weight: 0.5
Cross-List(s): Natural Resources Management 3450
Notes: An additional fee (see Miscellaneous Fees) is required for this course.
Course Classifications: Type C: Engineering, Mathematical and Natural Sciences

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Biology 3470 Biotechnology of Plants View Details
Facts and myths surrounding plant biotechnology, domestication of modern crop plants, photosynthesis and primary assimilation of inorganic nutrients, plant growth regulators, morphogenesis, tissue culture, water relations and transport, and plant movements and directional growth.
Credit Weight: 0.5
Prerequisite(s): Biology 2230 and 2910 or permission of the instructor
Offering: 3-3; or 3-3
Notes: An additional fee (see Miscellaneous Fees) is required for this course.
Course Classifications: Type C: Engineering, Mathematical and Natural Sciences

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Biology 3475 Alpine Plant Physiology View Details
A field-based course with lectures which will cover photosynthesis and primary assimilation of inorganic nutrients, water relations and transport, plant movements and directional growth, environmental stress and seed germination physiology, induction of flowering, pollination and flower development. Field trips will focus on mountain geomorphology and climate in relation to plant life.
Credit Weight: 0.5
Notes: Course will normally be offered in the second half of the summer term.  Additional costs will be borne by participants.
Course Classifications: Type C: Engineering, Mathematical and Natural Sciences

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Biology 3610 Environmental Biology View Details
The impact of environmental degradation on organisms and the earth is studied through an in-depth examination of human population growth, renewable resource depletion and pollution. Particular attention will be given to specific crises in agriculture, forestry and wildlife management. Causes and prevention of these renewable resources problems are discussed.
Credit Weight: 0.5
Cross-List(s): Environmental Studies 3610
Offering: 3-0; or 3-0
Course Classifications: Type C: Engineering, Mathematical and Natural Sciences

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Biology 3671 Evolutionary Concepts View Details
Designed for students majoring in biology who want to understand evolutionary concepts and their application to important questions in biology, with an emphasis on ecology. Course instruction will include a mixture of lectures, general discussions, tutorials, and investigative assignments. Lectures will emphasize conceptual, empirical, and experimental approaches to the study of evolution. Topics include mechanisms of evolution, adaptation, speciation and an introduction to evolutionary ecology.
Credit Weight: 0.5
Prerequisite(s): Biology 2171 and 2210
Offering: 0-0;2-2
Notes: Students who have previous credit in Biology 2671 may not take Biology 3671 for credit.
Course Classifications: Type C: Engineering, Mathematical and Natural Sciences

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Biology 3711 Pathogenic Bacteriology View Details
An introduction to pathogenic mechanisms of bacterial pathogens. Selective pathogens will be used to illustrate pathogen-host interactions. A general introduction of host responses to bacterial infections.
Credit Weight: 0.5
Prerequisite(s): Biology 2711
Offering: 3-0; or 3-0
Course Classifications:
  • Type C: Engineering, Mathematical and Natural Sciences
  • Type D: Health and Behavioral Sciences

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Biology 3713 Microbial Physiology View Details
A study of the structure, functions, biochemistry and genetics of microorganisms. Topics including microbial metabolism, growth, regulation, and their relationships with various environmental factors will be examined. Basic microbial genetics such as mutation, genetic exchange and recombination will also be discussed.
Prerequisite(s): Biology 2711
Offering: 0-0; 3-0

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Biology 3770 Biology of Food Safety View Details
Selected topics in food safety, such as foodborne diseases and their prevention, genetically modified foods and antibiotic/pesticide use in food production will be covered. The biological foundations and scientific literature of these food safety issues will be examined and the role of government regulations and consumer attitudes discussed.
Credit Weight: 0.5
Prerequisite(s): Biology 2711
Offering: 3-0; 0-0
Course Classifications: Type C: Engineering, Mathematical and Natural Sciences

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Biology 3990 Research Internship I View Details
A work-term option consisting of a minimum of 120 hours as a research intern with a full-time faculty member in the Department of Biology. The work-term will usually take place during either the spring or summer session. Students will write, and be graded on, a report on their work experience that details the nature of the research, the nature of their contribution, and how the work term has changed their world-view of biology. Students may be required to present an oral summary to the Department. Students interested in the intern option should contact potential supervisors. Students may obtain credit for no more than one internship with a single faculty member, and for no more than two internships in total.
Credit Weight: 0.5
Prerequisite(s): Permission of the supervisor. Students must have an overall B average in previous Biology courses.
Notes: Students may not register for Biology 3990 when concurrently registered in Biology 3991 or Biology 4101. May only be taken with the written consent of the instructor and the Chair of the Department.
Course Classifications: Type C: Engineering, Mathematical and Natural Sciences

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Biology 3991 Research Internship II View Details
A work-term option consisting of a minimum of 120 hours as a research intern with a full-time faculty member in the Department of Biology. The work-term will usually take place during either the spring or summer session. Students will write, and be graded on, a report on their work experience that details the nature of the research, the nature of their contribution, and how the work term has changed their world-view of biology. Students may be required to present an oral summary to the Department. Students interested in the intern option should contact potential supervisors. Students may obtain credit for no more than one internship with a single faculty member, and for no more than two internships in total.
Credit Weight: 0.5
Prerequisite(s): Permission of the supervisor. Students must have an overall B average in previous Biology courses.
Notes: Students may not register for Biology 3991 when concurrently registered in Biology 3990 or Biology 4101. May only be taken with the written consent of the instructor and the Chair of the Department.
Course Classifications: Type C: Engineering, Mathematical and Natural Sciences

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Biology 4011 Fundamentals of Immunology View Details
Fundamental principles of basic and experimental immunology from first engagement of innate immunity to the generation of the adaptive immune response, with a strong focus on vertebrates, especially humans.
Credit Weight: 0.5
Prerequisite(s):

Biology 2171 and 2230

Offering: 3-0; or 3-0
Notes: No previous knowledge in immunology is necessary. Some insight in basic genetics and signalling pathways with their receptors is recommended. Students who have prvious credit in Biology 4630 with the topic "Fundamentals of Immunology" may not take Biology 4011 for credit.
Course Classifications: Type C: Engineering, Mathematical and Natural Sciences

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Biology 4101 Honours Thesis View Details
A research problem in biology on a selected topic. The student will prepare a report of the research and present a Biology Department seminar. Students must verify which Biology faculty member will supervise the research before completing the third year of study.
Credit Weight: 1.0
Notes: Students may not use data collected for Biology 3990/3991 (Research Internship I and II) toward the honours thesis. May only be taken with the written consent of the instructor and the Chair of the Department.
Course Classifications: Type C: Engineering, Mathematical and Natural Sciences

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Biology 4111 Parasitology View Details
Study of the protozoan, helminth and arthropod parasites. Emphasis is placed on parasitism as a biological phenomenon. Laboratory work will be concerned with a study of the structure and identification of representative parasites as well as an explanation of techniques used in parasitology.
Credit Weight: 0.5
Prerequisite(s): Biology 3212 or permission of the instructor
Offering: 3-3; or 3-3
Notes: An additional fee (see Miscellaneous Fees) is required for this course.
Course Classifications: Type C: Engineering, Mathematical and Natural Sciences

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Biology 4113 Community Ecology View Details
Principles of ecology and evolution used to explain patterns, process, structure and function of ecological communities.
Credit Weight: 0.5
Offering: 0-0; 2-2
Course Classifications: Type C: Engineering, Mathematical and Natural Sciences

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Biology 4115 Plant Ecology of Disturbed Habitats View Details
Habitat and plant community response to natural and human induced ecosystem disturbances will be discussed with special reference to type, intensity and frequency of disturbance. Particular attention will be focused on regeneration strategies of dominant plants, species diversity and composition, nearground microclimate, and changes in soil physical and chemical properties. Vulnerability and resilience of ecosystem integrity will be explained on the basis of biotic and abiotic factors with special reference to boreal forests. Remediation of adverse ecological impacts resulting from human induced disturbances will be discussed. Technical writing based on field and laboratory studies, term papers, and seminar presentations are required components of the course.
Credit Weight: 0.5
Cross-List(s): Environmental Studies 4115
Offering: 3-3; or 3-3
Notes: An additional fee (see Miscellaneous Fees) is required for this course.
Course Classifications: Type C: Engineering, Mathematical and Natural Sciences

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Biology 4117 Advances in Contemporary Ecology View Details
An investigation of topics in contemporary ecology with an emphasis on large-scale patterns of abundance and distribution of organisms in nature. Topics covered will include the importance of scale in ecology, latitudinal patterns of species richness, range size theory, and the relationship between abundance and distribution. This course will consist of the compilation, analysis and interpretation of macroecological data.
Credit Weight: 0.5
Offering: 3-0; or 3-0
Course Classifications: Type C: Engineering, Mathematical and Natural Sciences

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Biology 4132 Biofilms View Details
Fundamentals of bacterial biofilms and their role in food, environmental and medical microbiology.
Credit Weight: 0.5
Prerequisite(s):

Biology 2711

Cross-List(s): Applied Bio-Molecular Science 4132
Offering: 3-0; or 3-0
Course Classifications: Type C: Engineering, Mathematical and Natural Sciences

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Biology 4135 Synaptic Circuits View Details
Overview and analysis of mechanisms underlying neural processing at cellular and systems levels in mammalian central nervous systems. Topics span a broad range, from ion flow at membranes to functional subsystem-level analysis. Topics to be covered may include parallel processing of visual/somatic sensory data, reflex response organisation in motor pathways, integration of movement, synaptic plasticity in neuro-recovery, trace amine modulation of synaptic transmission.
Credit Weight: 0.5
Prerequisite(s):

Biology 3250 or permission of the Chair of the Department

Offering: 3-0; or 3-0
Course Classifications: Type C: Engineering, Mathematical and Natural Sciences

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Biology 4152 Field Course in Aquatic Ecology View Details
A two-week field course that provides a general background in limnology and aquatic ecology, and emphasizes the application of experimental ecology to help address environmental issues related to water and aquatic resource management.
Credit Weight: 0.5
Prerequisite(s):

Biology 2210, Mathematics 2310, Mathematics 2311; or permission of the instructor and Chair of the Department. All registrants in the course must be able to swim and be physically fit for hiking and overnight camping. 

Offering: A two-week field course
Notes: A course fee for field activities will be required.
Course Classifications: Type C: Engineering, Mathematical and Natural Sciences

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Biology 4153 OUPFB Field Biology Course View Details
A two-week field course offered by the Ontario Universities Program in Field Biology. This course is chosen from a list of courses offered by OUPFB participating institutions. Biological subjects range from the Arctic to the Tropics, microbes to mammals, and cover marine, freshwater and terrestrial habitats. Note: Students may take a maximum of one 0.5 FCE in Biology 4153. For more information about the course, visit http://www.oupfb.ca/.
Credit Weight: 0.5
Prerequisite(s):

Biology 2210, Mathematics 2310, Mathematics 2311; or permission of the instructor and Chair of the Department

Offering: A two-week field course
Notes: A course fee for field activities will be required.
Course Classifications: Type C: Engineering, Mathematical and Natural Sciences

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Biology 4211 Mammalogy View Details
Origin, relationship and structure of mammals. A survey of the families of living mammals: past and present distribution of important groups. Special attention is given to Ontario forms.
Credit Weight: 0.5
Offering: 0-0; 3-3
Notes: An additional fee (see Miscellaneous Fees) is required for this course.
Course Classifications: Type C: Engineering, Mathematical and Natural Sciences

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Biology 4212 Biology of Fishes View Details
Course lectures consider fish as a form of vertebrate organization with emphasis on evolution, anatomy, physiology, behaviour, migration and distribution, while the laboratory emphasizes ecology, distribution and systematics of the local fauna. Some field trips.
Credit Weight: 0.5
Offering: 3-3;0-0
Notes: An additional fee (see Miscellaneous Fees) is required for this course.
Course Classifications: Type C: Engineering, Mathematical and Natural Sciences

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Biology 4218 Laboratory Methods of Environmental Monitoring View Details
Students will be trained in the ISO17025 accredited Lakehead University Environmental Laboratory for standard practices required to analyze water, sediment and toxicology samples. A day long field trip will be required to collect needed samples and take field measurements from an actual degraded environmental site. The collected water and sediment samples will be used for the environmental investigation. Topics covered will include QA/QC, toxicology statistical techniques, and water and sediment analytical procedures using colorimetry, chromatography, ICP spectroscopy and potentiometry. Students will gain actual hands on experience in assessing an environmental situation at the level expected from industry and regulatory agencies.
Credit Weight: 0.5
Prerequisite(s):

Biology 1110, Biology 1130, Chemistry 1110, Chemistry 1130, and permission of the instructor and Chair of the Department

Offering: 0-3; or 0-3 plus a one-day field trip
Notes: A course fee for laboratories will be required.

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Biology 4230 Cancer Biology View Details
This course provides upper-level students with instruction in the interdisciplinary and immensely growing field of cancer research. This course includes aspects of molecular and cell biology, virology, immunology, histopathology, and epidemiology. Specific topics covered may include: pathologies of common cancers, cellular immortalization and transformation, tumour immunology and microenvironment, infectious agents and cancer, viral evolution and cancer, invasion, metastasis and stem cells. Additional topics such as cancer diagnosis (e.g. diagnostic imaging techniques including ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging) and how cancers are treated (e.g. standards of care, radiotherapy, and innovative non-invasive treatment approaches) may also be discussed.
Credit Weight: 0.5
Prerequisite(s):

Biology 3252/Chemistry 3251 and 0.5 FCE from the List A Biology Elective Courses or permission of the Chair of the Department of Biology.

Offering: 3-0; or 3-0
Course Classifications:
  • Type C: Engineering, Mathematical and Natural Sciences
  • Type D: Health and Behavioral Sciences

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Biology 4231 Ornithology View Details
The biology of birds, including their evolution, systematics, anatomy, reproduction, ecology, and behaviour. Laboratory work will examine aspects of avian morphology, such as plumages and internal anatomy, and adaptations for feeding, locomotion, and reproduction.
Credit Weight: 0.5
Prerequisite(s):

Biology 1110 and 2210 or permission of the instructor and Chair of the Department

Offering: 3-3; or 3-3
Notes: An additional fee (see Miscellaneous Fees) is required for this course.
Course Classifications: Type C: Engineering, Mathematical and Natural Sciences

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Biology 4252 Conservation Ecology View Details
See Faculty of Natural Resources Management, Natural Resources Management Courses, Natural Resources Management 4252, for full course description.
Credit Weight: 0.5
Prerequisite(s): Natural Resources Management 3219 or permission of the instructor
Cross-List(s): Natural Resources Management 4252
Course Classifications: Type C: Engineering, Mathematical and Natural Sciences

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Biology 4372 Bioethics Issues for the Life Sciences View Details
Contemporary issues in ethical decision-making as related to topical situations in the life sciences will be discussed and deliberated. Particular emphasis is placed on problems surrounding laboratory-based research approaches which are commonly used in biological/biomedical contexts today. Format will be based on student-led discussions debates and case study analysis.
Credit Weight: 0.5
Offering: 3-0; or 3-0
Notes: May only be taken by students who have successfully completed a Biology course with a laboratory component.

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Biology 4430 Wetland Ecology View Details
An examination of the biology and chemistry of wetland environments. Emphasis will be placed on plant species adaptations to and interrelationships with continually-flooded soils. Field and laboratory exercises will concentrate on experimental design, sampling methods, and analytical procedures. A wetland plant collection of at least 30 species is a requirement for the course.
Credit Weight: 0.5
Prerequisite(s): Biology 1130
Offering: 2-3; or 2-3
Notes: An additional fee (see Miscellaneous Fees) is required for this course.
Course Classifications: Type C: Engineering, Mathematical and Natural Sciences

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Biology 4435 Herpetology View Details
Origin, structure, life history, distribution, ecology and conservation of amphibians and reptiles. A survey of living families. Special attention is focussed on species occurring in Canada, particularly those in Ontario.
Credit Weight: 0.5
Offering: 3-3; or 3-3
Notes: An additional fee (see Miscellaneous Fees) is required for this course.
Course Classifications: Type C: Engineering, Mathematical and Natural Sciences

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Biology 4470 Global Change Biology View Details
An examination of how biological systems respond to, and sometimes cause, global change. Special focus is placed on human actions and how they are affecting other organisms, ecosystems, and biodiversity globally.
Credit Weight: 0.5
Cross-List(s): Environmental Studies 4470
Offering: 3-0; or 3-0
Notes: Open only to students in the third and fourth year of any program.
Course Classifications: Type C: Engineering, Mathematical and Natural Sciences

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Biology 4512 Plant Propagation View Details
The theory and practice of plant propagation using seeds, asexual methods (cuttings, grafting, layering, runners, bulbs, rhizomes and tubers) and tissue culture are examined. Environmental factors controlling propagation including light, water, temperature, nutrients, as well as both beneficial and detrimental organisms will be discussed and methods used to control these factors scrutinized. Emphasis will be placed on applying propagation methods to the production of Northern crops such as blueberries, cranberries and wild rice. Laboratory exercises will concentrate on assessing the growth performance of plants in various soil media, soil analysis, seed germination and asexual propagation methods.
Credit Weight: 0.5
Prerequisite(s): Biology 1130
Offering: 2-3; or 2-3
Notes: An additional fee (see Miscellaneous Fees) is required for this course.
Course Classifications: Type C: Engineering, Mathematical and Natural Sciences

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Biology 4610 Biology Tutorial I View Details
Topics to be arranged to suit student specialization. The student will present his/her work at a Biology Department seminar. Students should consult the Department of Biology, and specific faculty members, for course availability.
Credit Weight: 0.5
Special Topic: Yes
Notes: May only be taken with the written consent of the instructor and the Chair of the Department.
Course Classifications: Type C: Engineering, Mathematical and Natural Sciences

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Biology 4630 Biology Tutorial II View Details
Topics to be arranged to suit student specialization. The student will present his/her work at a Biology Department Seminar. Students should consult the Department of Biology, and specific faculty members, for course availability.
Credit Weight: 0.5
Special Topic: Yes
Notes: May only be taken with the written consent of the instructor and the Chair of the Department.
Course Classifications: Type C: Engineering, Mathematical and Natural Sciences

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Biology 4650 Issues in Biotechnology View Details
Current technical and ethical issues in biotechnology will be presented and discussed: plant biotechnology and genetically modified foods, mammalian cloning, reproductive technologies, gene therapies, drug development and approval processes, implications of cloning to biodiversity and lateral gene flow, bioremediation using transgenic organisms. Significant preparation outside of class meeting times will be required.
Credit Weight: 0.5
Cross-List(s): Applied Bio-Molecular Science 4650
Offering: 3-0; or 3-0
Course Classifications: Type C: Engineering, Mathematical and Natural Sciences

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Biology 4710 Limnology View Details
The physical, chemical and biological characteristics of lakes, rivers, and estuaries are examined. The major focus is on the ecology of lakes in the Boreal Forest region. Lake sampling methods will be developed during a weekend field trip. Laboratory exercises will concentrate on chemical analyses of water and sediment samples, and the quantification of productivity indices.
Credit Weight: 0.5
Prerequisite(s): Chemistry 1110 and 1130
Offering: 2-3; or 2-3
Notes: An additional fee (see Miscellaneous Fees) is required for this course.
Course Classifications: Type C: Engineering, Mathematical and Natural Sciences

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Biology 4711 Applied and Environmental Microbiology View Details
A fundamental knowledge of the role of micro-organisms in global nutrient cycles, interrelationships within and between microbial communities and environmental factors affecting microbial structure and function. Microbiological aspects of terrestrial and aquatic environments and selective topics on biotechnology will be discussed. Both traditional and molecular analysis for microbial communities will be introduced.
Credit Weight: 0.5
Prerequisite(s): Biology 2711
Offering: 3-0; or 3-0
Course Classifications: Type C: Engineering, Mathematical and Natural Sciences

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Biology 4751 Neurobiology I View Details
An examination of the operation and integration of the sensory elements of the human central nervous system. Generation and survival of nerve cells, axons and synapses; sexual differentiation of the nervous system; and aging brain and dementia.
Credit Weight: 0.5
Prerequisite(s): Permission of the instructor
Offering: 3-0; 0-0
Notes: Limited enrolment.
Course Classifications: Type C: Engineering, Mathematical and Natural Sciences

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Biology 4752 Neurobiology II View Details
An examination of the operation and integration of the sensory elements of the human central nervous system. Perception and movement; integration of sensory and motor function; perception and action; sensory information; bodily senses; pain; visual processing and pathways; hearing; and the chemical senses.
Credit Weight: 0.5
Prerequisite(s): Biology 4751 or permission of the instructor
Offering: 0-0; 3-0
Notes: Limited enrolment.
Course Classifications: Type C: Engineering, Mathematical and Natural Sciences

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Biology 4770 Food Microbiology View Details
Important groups of microorganisms associated with food spoilage, food fermentations, food infections and intoxications. Intrinsic and extrinsic factors of food and their relationship to microbial growth. Control of microorganisms by food processing. Laboratory skills in food microbiology.
Credit Weight: 0.5
Prerequisite(s): Biology 2711
Offering: 0-0; 3-3
Notes: An additional fee (see Miscellaneous Fees) is required for this course. A limited enrolment course.
Course Classifications: Type C: Engineering, Mathematical and Natural Sciences

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Biology 4830 Endocrinology View Details
An examination of the origin, development, operation and regulation of vertebrate endocrine systems with emphasis on mammalian models.
Credit Weight: 0.5
Prerequisite(s): Biology 3250 or permission of the instructor
Offering: 3-0; 0-0
Notes: Limited enrolment.
Course Classifications: Type C: Engineering, Mathematical and Natural Sciences

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Biology 4850 Neurochemistry View Details
A detailed overview of principal neurochemical families from perspectives including synthesis and metabolism, release regulation, receptor interaction and post-receptor signaling.
Credit Weight: 0.5
Prerequisite(s): Biology 3250 and 3251, and permission of the instructor
Offering: 3-0; 0-0
Notes: Limited enrolment.
Course Classifications: Type C: Engineering, Mathematical and Natural Sciences

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Biology 4855 Pharmacology View Details
A comprehensive and quantitative analysis of exogenous biochemical management in vertebrates. Includes principles and mathematical analysis of drug absorbtion, distribution, clearance, mechanism of action, interactions and animal adaptations.
Credit Weight: 0.5
Prerequisite(s): Biology 3250, 3251, 4850, and permission of the instructor
Offering: 0-0; 3-0
Notes: Limited enrolment.
Course Classifications: Type C: Engineering, Mathematical and Natural Sciences

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